Kyoto is a set of rules to the United Nations frame work convention on climate changes. This protocol is aimed at fighting global warming. UNFCCC is an international treaty to deal well with the greenhouse gases and reduce their affect on the climates. This protocol was introduced in 1997 in Kyoto Japan and was enforced fully in 2005. Almost 187 countries signed this protocol to help stop drastic environment changes. Following are key objectives of kyoto protocol
Key Objective of this Protocol
It aims to stabilize the reconstruction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in order to prevent dangerous anthropogenic meddling with the climate. This protocol serves many purposes staring from the awareness about the global warming. This protocol binds legally its members to help fight global warming. This treaty is aimed to reduce about 5.2% carbon emissions up to 2012. This does not mean that this protocol would expire in 2012. The major objectives of this protocol are commitment to reduce green house gases. This protocol also requires use of mechanisms such as increasing the absorption of the gases. Making policies to reduce global warming and applying protocol principles is also an integral part of this treaty. It also wants an establishment of adaptation fund for minimizing impacts of global warming on people. It also involves regular monitoring of the policy including review, accounting and reports. This review system is like presenting annual report at the completion of one policy cycle. In the end for the strict policy implication compliance committees would guid and monitor the enforcement of the Kyoto protocol.
Set of Responsibilities
Under this agreement the members of the treaty have to go through a set of responsibilities. The protocol agrees that the largest share of global warming cam from the developed countries. The major reason is that the era of industrialization brought immense development in develop countries but along with side effects like global warming. However, now the statistics say that the per capita emission of carbon in developed countries is low. This is because the tax levied on the emission of the green house gases. Also the awareness about the global warming and utilization of alternative energy resources was first adopted by developed countries. If we blame the developed world for global warming we must not forget that they are also the first ones who adopted the measures to find global warming. The developing countries like India and china are not blamed mostly because there is no statistical proof to blame them. Now the developing countries have accepted the challenge to fight global warming and they would bear the burden of responsibilities to help fight this cause.
Some Important Considerations
The causes of the global warming are hard to fight and require a budget of million of dollars. This expense includes the disposal of industrial waste throughout the world. For this purpose the developed world is contributing million of dollars to provide machinery to its members to control carbon emissions. The cap and trade system contained in Kyoto inflict caps on annex I countries to stop global warming by cutting down carbon discharge in the air. These caps are like national level commitments to stop green house emission up to 5.2 % in the coming years. If the enforcement compliance committee feels that the member countries are not conforming to emission limitation , then that member country has to make up for 30% extra along with regular limitation. The position of member countries who are working well with this protocol are Australia ranking at top position followed by Canada, china, European union, Germany, united kingdom, France , Norway, India, Pakistan , Russia and united states.